“A continuum of chemical composition amongst cannabis strains was found instead of distinct chemotypes. Our data shows that some strains are much more reproducible in chemical composition than others. Strains labeled as indica were compared with those labeled as sativa and no evidence was found that these two cultivars are distinctly different chemotypes. PCA of “OG” and “Kush” type strains found that “OG” strains have relatively higher levels of α-terpineol, fenchol, limonene, camphene, terpinolene and linalool where “Kush” samples are characterized mainly by the compounds trans-ocimene, guaiol, β-eudesmol, myrcene and α-pinene.”
The 'DOSE' refers to a cannabinoid profile. Our strain labels list the top two most-concentrated cannabinoids found in a given batch of cannabis. While THC is most often the most potent cannabinoid, we think it's important to consider the influence of the secondary as well to offer a more thorough understanding of each flower's uniqueness. Lab Reports include over a dozen cannabinoids.
The 'Nose' refers to a strain's terpene profile. Terpenes -- often shortened to 'terps' -- are the fragrance molecules found within the plant's resin. Terpenes are known to contribute to the overall therapeutic effects of each cannabis strain. Use the 'Nose' to better understand a flower's uniqueness. While our strain labels list the top four terpenes per cannabis batch, full reports include a total of 35.
“Results of this study show that Delta(9)-THC and other cannabinoids exert antidepressant-like actions, and thus may contribute to the overall mood-elevating properties of cannabis.”
“Results of this study show that ∆9-THC and other cannabinoids exert antidepressant-like actions, and thus may contribute to the overall mood-elevating properties of cannabis.”
“THC was found to significantly decrease the time it takes to fall asleep in physically healthy insomniacs.”
“THC tended to be associated with some decrease in awakenings in the first half of the night.”
“Nevertheless, the impression gained from these studies was that certain doses of THC, particularly with repeated ingestion, may reduce rapid eye movement (REM) activity and increase slow-wave sleep.”
“Accordingly, CBD has been shown to reduce amygdalar responses to fearful stimuli ; this mechanism may be essential for the anxiolytic effects of this compound in social phobia . Furthermore, CBD has been shown to elicit antipanic effects through the activation of 5-HT1A receptors in the dorsal periaqueductal gray, a critical area for the modulation of emotional reactivity to stress [208,209].”
“The main finding from this case study is that CBD oil can be an effective compound to reduce anxiety and insomnia secondary to PTSD”
“Conversely, cannabidiol significantly reduced total chow consumption over the test period.”
“CBD… stimulated descending pathways of antinociception and caused analgesia by interacting with several target proteins involved in nociceptive control. [CBD] might represent useful therapeutic agents with multiple mechanisms of action.”
“The consumption of 2.5mg to 5mg of CBN has the same level of sedation as a mild pharmaceutical sedative, with a relaxed body sensation similar to 5mg to 10mg of diazepam. CBN is synergistic with both CBD and D9THC for inducement of sleeping, and when mixed in the correct ratios, CBN becomes an effective sleep aid of 5-6 hours duration.”
“This is the first time cannabinol has been shown to increase feeding. Therefore, cannabinol could, in the future, provide an alternative to the currently used and psychotropic ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-based medicines since cannabinol is currently considered to be non-psychotropic. Furthermore, cannabidiol reduced food intake in line with some existing reports, supporting the need for further mechanistic and behavioral work examining possible anti-obesity effects of cannabidiol.”
”This investigation has provided the first evidence that cannabigerol can activate α2-adrenoceptors, bind to cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors and block CB1 and 5-HT1A receptors.” [C]annabigerol can indeed inhibit noradrenaline reuptake, this would be consistent with a preliminary report that it increases struggling behaviour in the mouse tail suspension test, an indication that it may possess antidepressant activity.
“cannabichromene (CBC) exhibited significant ‘antidepressant-like” effects at 20mg/kg”
“CBC stimulated descending pathways of antinociception and caused analgesia by interacting with several target proteins involved in nociceptive control. [CBC] might represent useful therapeutic agents with multiple mechanisms of action.”
Cannabinoid receptors have also been found in fat and the liver, which might explain why GW Pharma’s compound THCV improved metabolic abnormalities associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes in animals.
“Additionally, the propylated form of THC (THCV), induced weight loss, decreased body fat and serum leptin concentrations with increased energy expenditure in a murine study . is particular study poses interest in creating molecules similar to THCV as potential dietary drugs.”
"Natural borneol (NB) has been used as a promoter of drug absorption"
“Taken together, these preclinical results suggest that CB2 receptors may provide alternative therapeutic targets for the treatment of anxiety and depression. The possibility that BCP may ameliorate the symptoms of these mood disorders offers exciting prospects for future studies.”
“These data suggest possible connections between the volatility of (+)-limonene and its anxiolytic-like effect on the parameters evaluated in the elevated plus maze test. The data indicate that (+)-limonene could be used in aromatherapy as an anti-anxiety agent.”
”Fragrance (citrus was our choice) which comforts through stimulation of the olfactory system was applied to depressive patients. It was given to 12 depressive subjects and the results indicated that the doses of antidepressants necessary for the treatment of depression could be markedly reduced. The treatment with citrus fragrance normalized neuroendocrine hormone levels and immune function and was rather more effective than antidepressants.”
“Human clinical studies, in which hospitalized depressed patients were exposed with limonene aroma, demonstrated a significant anti-depressive effect.”
“Inhaled linalool showed anxiolytic properties in the light/dark test, increased social interaction and decreased aggressive behavior; impaired memory was only seen the higher dose of linalool. These results strengthen the suggestion that inhaling linalool rich essential oils can be useful as a mean to attain relaxation and counteract anxiety.”
“Together, these data would support the hypothesis that myrcene is a prominent sedative terpenoid in cannabis, and combined with THC, may produce the ‘couch-lock’ phenomenon of certain chemotypes that is alternatively decried or appreciated by recreational cannabis consumers.”
“The peripheral analgesic effect of myrcene was confirmed by testing a standard commercial preparation on the hyperalgesia induced by prostaglandin in the rat paw test and upon the contortions induced by intraperitoneal injections of iloprost in mice. In contrast to the central analgesic effect of morphine, myrcene did not cause tolerance on repeated injection in rats. Terpenes such as myrcene may constitute a lead for the development of new peripheral analgesics with a profile of action different from that of the aspirin-like drugs.”
“Our findings strongly support the hypothesis that oxidative stress occurs in hippocampus. Nerolidol showed sedative effects in animals subjected to the open field test. Oxidative process plays a crucial role on neuronal pathological consequence, and implies that antioxidant effects could be achieved using this sesquiterpene.”